AArch64 Bare-Metal program in Rust

By Ilja K. @osdev / March 23, 2020

From this post you can learn how to write a simple bare metal program in Rust for ARM AArch64 architecture, run it with QEMU on virtual device, attach a debugger and disassemble it.

Introduction

Rust is a modern programming language positioned as safe, productive and suitable for system level development. It comes with its own packaging system and various utilities for management, compilation, linking and even code formatting. The language is very versatile and multifaceted, so it could take some time to understand and get used to it.

I wanted to try it for ARM AArch64 programming, but realised that there is not much information about usage of Rust for this architecture and all examples that I have found were out-of-date and required some additional efforts to make them working. So I decided to write about how to get started with Rust and AArch64 with a hope it will be useful for somebody else.

Preparing Environment

Install rustup - a toolchain manager for Rust. The process depends on your operating system, but if you are on Linux I would recommend to start from searching for the rustup package in your native package manager. Once you have it installed, execute

rustup update

Now you should have the following set of tools installed on your system:

In addition to that you will need:

Installing Toolchain

To compile a code for AArch64, we will need the nightly toolchain installed. To install it and set it as default, execute the following command :

rustup default nightly

Installing a Sysroot Manager

To perform a cross-build it is necessary to have a sysroot for target platform with binaries for standard crates. Making it manualy is not something I would recommend to do, but fortunately there are two third party solutions that can automate a process: xargo and its simplified fork cargo-xbuild.

I decided to stick with cargo-xbuild, that can work as a wrapper for cargo, later you will see it in action, but now to install it execute

cargo install cargo-xbuild

You will also need to install Rust sources for cross-compilation of default language components. It can be done using rustup.

rust-src component using

rustup component add rust-src

Starting a Project

Now we have all the tools we need. To start a new project, the cargo utility can be used. Run it as follows

cargo new aarch64-bare-metal --bin --edition 2018

The file structure should be something like this:

+ aarch64-bare-metal/
| + src/
| | - main.rs
| - Cargo.toml

If you have git installed, you will also find a preinitiated repository inside.

Writing a Program

Open your favorite text editor and bring contents of the newly created src/main.rs file to this one:

#![no_std]
#![no_main]
#![feature(global_asm)]

use core::ptr;

mod panic;

global_asm!(include_str!("start.s"));

#[no_mangle]
pub extern "C" fn not_main() {
    const UART0: *mut u8 = 0x0900_0000 as *mut u8;
    let out_str = b"AArch64 Bare Metal";
    for byte in out_str {
        unsafe {
            ptr::write_volatile(UART0, *byte);
        }
    }
}

Several things should be commented out here. First of all, we use #![no_std] to disable linking with the standard library and #![no_main] to use an entry point to our application other than the not_main function. The actual entry point will be defined in linker script as _start function and implemented in the start.s assembly file. It has to be done like this, because our program will start up on CPU boot when there is no OS and stack pointer defined yet, so we have to do it manually in assembly language.

To use inline assembly we should enable the global_asm feature and then we can include whole file start.s using include_str.

We use the #[no_mangle] attribute to disable name mangling and keep the not_main function’s symbol name as-is, at the same time with extern "C" to use the C calling convention, so we can call the function outside of Rust code.

And the most significant part of our program is concentrated inside the not_main function. It performs a character by character writing of the AArch64 Bare Metal string at address 0x0900_0000, which is a memory mapped address of the UART0 peripheral of QEMU.


Now create next the rust file panic.rs in the same folder, containing this:

use core::panic::PanicInfo;

#[panic_handler]
fn on_panic(_info: &PanicInfo) -> ! {
    loop {}
}

We have to define an on_panic function with a #[panic_handler] attribute as a handler that will be used by the compiler in panic situations. It is worth to mention that Rust implements the tiered Unwinding error handling process, responsible for calling destructors, releasing memory in case of panic and continuing the execution of the application. It is a quite complicated function that requires OS-dependent libraries, but for now we have no other choice than to bypass it.

I would prefer to keep this handler in main.rs for simplicity, but for some reason in that case the compiler never uses a linker script (we will prepare it soon). And without it the program will be compiled for a wrong entry address and may not work properly.


Now create a file start.s inside the src/ folder with the following content:

.globl _start
.extern LD_STACK_PTR

.section ".text.boot"

_start:
    ldr     x30, =LD_STACK_PTR
    mov     sp, x30
    bl      not_main

.equ PSCI_SYSTEM_OFF, 0x84000008
.globl system_off
system_off:
    ldr     x0, =PSCI_SYSTEM_OFF
    hvc     #0

It is very small and simple. First we define the _start symbol as global, then initialize the stack with the address 0x40004000 and call the not_main function defined in main.rs. Once it returns, the execution goes to the system_off label, where a CPU shutdown is called using the hypervisor call instruction hvc.

Writing Linker Script

For our program we need a very simple linker script. Create a file named aarch64-qemu.ld in the project root folder with this content:

ENTRY(_start)
SECTIONS
{
    . = 0x40080000;
    .text.boot : { *(.text.boot) }
    .text : { *(.text) }
    .data : { *(.data) }
    .rodata : { *(.rodata) }
    .bss : { *(.bss) }

    . = ALIGN(8);
    . = . + 0x4000;
    LD_STACK_PTR = .;
}

There are two important things here:

Configuring Target

To get a full list of supported targets, you can execute rustc --print target-list. A common practice of targets naming is usage of triples, consisting of ---.

For bare metal programs, aarch64-unknown-none is preferable. To cross build, we will need to provide the target specifications in a JSON format. The command below will get the default specification for aarch64-unknown-none and store it in the file aarch64-unknown-none.json:

rustc -Z unstable-options --print target-spec-json --target aarch64-unknown-none > aarch64-unknown-none.json

Open that file in a text editor and add the following snippet inside the root object, to ask the Rust compiler to use our linker script:

    "pre-link-args": {
        "ld.lld": ["-Taarch64-qemu.ld"]
    },

So, in the end, contents of your aarch64-unknown-none.json file should look like this:

{
  "abi-blacklist": [
    "stdcall",
    "fastcall",
    "vectorcall",
    "thiscall",
    "win64",
    "sysv64"
  ],
  "arch": "aarch64",
  "data-layout": "e-m:e-i8:8:32-i16:16:32-i64:64-i128:128-n32:64-S128",
  "disable-redzone": true,
  "env": "",
  "executables": true,
  "features": "+strict-align,+neon,+fp-armv8",
  "is-builtin": true,
  "linker": "rust-lld",
  "linker-flavor": "ld.lld",
  "linker-is-gnu": true,
  "pre-link-args": {
    "ld.lld": ["-Taarch64-qemu.ld"]
  },
  "llvm-target": "aarch64-unknown-none",
  "max-atomic-width": 128,
  "os": "none",
  "panic-strategy": "abort",
  "relocation-model": "static",
  "target-c-int-width": "32",
  "target-endian": "little",
  "target-pointer-width": "64",
  "vendor": ""
}

Build and Run

Finally we are ready to compile the program! At this stage our project structure should look like this:

+ aarch64-bare-metal/
| + src/
| | - main.rs
| | - panic.rs
| | - start.s
| - Cargo.toml
| - aarch64-unknown-none.json
| - aarch64-qemu.ld

And building for the dev profile should be as easy as:

cargo xbuild --target=aarch64-unknown-none.json

And for the release profile:

cargo xbuild --target=aarch64-unknown-none.json --release

If you are curious about how sysroot is being managed by xbuild, you can add -v to these command flags for verbose output.

After building, the target/ folder will appear in the project root folder and compiled executables can be found inside:

The difference between these two builds is that the one from the release folder is optimised and does not contain debug symbols, while the debug one does. Both of them are ELF files that are ready to be executed in QEMU and called with the following parameters:

qemu-system-aarch64 -machine virt \
  -m 1024M \
  -cpu cortex-a53 \
  -nographic \
  -kernel target/aarch64-unknown-none/debug/aarch64-bare-metal

You shall see in terminal the following output from our program:

AArch64 Bare Metal

Disassembly

Disassembly is a very important part of low level development. You may want to use it for troubleshooting, analysing and optimisation. This requires from the developer knowledge of both the target architecture and its assembly language. Experience comes up with time, but the good news is that AArch64 assembly is much more user friendly and intuitive than let’s say x86.

To disassemble out the program we will use objdump utility from GNU toolchain:

aarch64-none-elf-objdump --disassemble-all target/aarch64-unknown-none/debug/aarch64-bare-metal

The full listing has about 4k lines, so I will not bring it all here, but just one interesting part:


00000000400011b4 <_ZN4core3ptr14write_volatile17hf16241fac42e4551E>:
//  address:  code:     instruction:
    400011b4: d10043ff  sub  sp, sp, #0x10  // decrement stack pointer by 16 bytes
    400011b8: f90003e0  str  x0, [sp]       // store in stack value from register x0 (it has target address 0x0900_0000 in our case)
    400011bc: 39003fe1  strb w1, [sp, #15]  // store in stack one byte from register w1 (it has character to output)
    400011c0: 39000001  strb w1, [x0]       // store byte from w1 at address in x0 (actually output a character to UART)
    400011c4: 910043ff  add  sp, sp, #0x10  // increment stack pointer by 16 bytes
    400011c8: d65f03c0  ret                 // return

This is the disassembled function ptr::write_volatile, that we used for writing bytes to UART. Here you can see mentioned above name mangling in action: _ZN4core3ptr14write_volatile17hf16241fac42e4551E. But you also probably noticed how ineffective it is : instead of 1 instruction we actually need strb w1, [x0], so we have 6 extra instructions for nothing.

To be honest, when I saw it for the first time I was about to stop further learning of Rust. But fortunately I did the same disassembly for release build.

aarch64-none-elf-objdump --disassemble-all target/aarch64-unknown-none/release/aarch64-bare-metal

And surprisingly the listing is just 66 lines long, so I will bring it almost completely:

1: Disassembly of section .text.boot:
2:
3: 0000000040001000 <_start>:
4:     40001000: 580000de  ldr x30, 40001018 <system_off+0xc>
5:     40001004: 910003df  mov sp, x30
6:     40001008: 94000008  bl  40001028 <not_main>
7:
8: 000000004000100c <system_off>:
9:     4000100c: 580000a0  ldr x0, 40001020 <system_off+0x14>
10:    40001010: d4000002  hvc #0x0
11:    40001014: d503201f  nop
12:    40001018: 400050b0  .inst 0x400050b0 ; undefined
13:    4000101c: 00000000  .inst 0x00000000 ; undefined
14:    40001020: 84000008  ld1sb {z8.s}, p0/z, [x0, z0.s, uxtw]
15:    40001024: 00000000  .inst 0x00000000 ; undefined

This part looks very similar to what we have in the start.s file with a couple exceptions. I manually added line numbers for easier reference. On line 4 there is a loading of an 8-byte address from 0x40001018. And below on line 12, there is an address where the compiler had stored the value of LD_STACK_PTR, which is 400050b0. A similar storage was done for PSCI_SYSTEM_OFF constant, see lines 9 and 14.

Now let’s take a look on the not_main function:

// listing of not_main function: all done inline!
0000000040001028 <not_main>:
    40001028: 52a12008  mov  w8, #0x9000000 // UART0 address
    4000102c: 52800829  mov  w9, #0x41      // A
    40001030: 52800e4a  mov  w10, #0x72     // r
    40001034: 52800c6b  mov  w11, #0x63     // c
    40001038: 39000109  strb w9, [x8]
    4000103c: 39000109  strb w9, [x8]
    40001040: 52800d09  mov  w9, #0x68      // h
    40001044: 3900010a  strb w10, [x8]
    40001048: 3900010b  strb w11, [x8]
    4000104c: 528006cb  mov  w11, #0x36     // 6
    40001050: 39000109  strb w9, [x8]
    40001054: 52800689  mov  w9, #0x34      // 4
    40001058: 3900010b  strb w11, [x8]
    4000105c: 5280040b  mov  w11, #0x20     // _
    40001060: 39000109  strb w9, [x8]
    40001064: 52800849  mov  w9, #0x42      // B
    40001068: 3900010b  strb w11, [x8]
    4000106c: 39000109  strb w9, [x8]
    40001070: 52800c29  mov  w9, #0x61      // a
    40001074: 39000109  strb w9, [x8]
    40001078: 3900010a  strb w10, [x8]
    4000107c: 52800caa  mov  w10, #0x65     // e
    40001080: 3900010a  strb w10, [x8]
    40001084: 3900010b  strb w11, [x8]
    40001088: 528009ab  mov  w11, #0x4d     // M
    4000108c: 3900010b  strb w11, [x8]
    40001090: 52800e8b  mov  w11, #0x74     // t
    40001094: 3900010a  strb w10, [x8]
    40001098: 52800d8a  mov  w10, #0x6c     // l
    4000109c: 3900010b  strb w11, [x8]
    400010a0: 39000109  strb w9, [x8]
    400010a4: 3900010a  strb w10, [x8]
    400010a8: d65f03c0  ret

There is no call to ptr::write_volatile at all, but very well optimized for performance code:

This is just amazing!

Attaching Debugger

Debugging is an essential part of low level development. When you are programming the MMU, interrupts or drivers, sometimes it is the only way to find out what is going wrong with your code. For real hardware you may require an external hardware debugger (and maybe even soldering skills), but for the QEMU virtual device you need just two additional flags -S -s to the command we already used. These flags tell QEMU to pause the execution, open a TCP socket on the default port 1234 and wait for the GNU debugger to connect.

qemu-system-aarch64 -machine virt -m 1024M -cpu cortex-a53 -nographic -kernel target/aarch64-unknown-none/debug/aarch64-bare-metal -S -s

Now it is turn for the gdb-multiarch, but before we start, let’s prepare a configuration file release.gdb in the project root directory for it:

set disassemble-next-line on
set confirm off
add-symbol-file target/aarch64-unknown-none/release/aarch64-bare-metal
target remote tcp::1234
set arch aarch64
layout regs

Now run gdb-multiarch in another terminal window with the following command:

gdb-multiarch -x debug.gdb

Debug Rust program with gdb-multiarch on AArch64

GDB Cheatsheet

GDB has its own console, which is a big stress for beginners. But there is a small and easy set of commands to remember for a quick start :


Afterwords

I’ve been working on a kernel for LeOS in C for a while. After implementing of multitasking, and switching between exception levels, I’ve started with MMU programming. When I made it work I realized that it is a good time to make some refactoring and rebasing of everything I made. At the same time I decided to take a look at Rust and even consider it as main language for the kernel.

I have spent a couple of days on the application from this post, understanding the Rust ecosystem and other researches. Now when I am finishing writing I already know, that results of this will form the basis of the first commit to the LeOS Kernel repository.